A vasovasostomy is a surgical procedure in which the effects of a vasectomy (male sterilization) are reversed. During a vasectomy, the vasa deferentia, which are ducts that carry sperm from the testicles to the seminal vesicles, are cut, tied, cauterized (burned or seared), or otherwise interrupted. A vasovasostomy creates an opening between the separated ends of each vas deferens so that the sperm may enter the semen before ejaculation. Purpose The purpose of a vasovasostomy is to restore a man's fertility, whereas a vasectomy, or male sterilization, is performed to provide reliable contraception (birth control). Research indicates that the level of effectiveness in preventing pregnancy is 99.6%. Vasectomy is the most reliable method of contraception and has less risk of complications and a faster recovery time than female sterilization methods. In many cases, a vasectomy can be reversed. Vasectomy reversal does not, however, guarantee a successful pregnancy. The longer the time elapsed since a man has had a vasectomy, the more difficult the reversal and the lower the success rate. The rate of sperm return if a vasovasostomy is performed within three years of a vasectomy is 97%; this number decreases to 88% three to eight years after vasectomy, 79% by nine to 14 years, and 71% after 15 years. In addition, other factors affect the success rate of vasectomy reversal, including the age of the female partner, her fertility potential, the method of reversal used, and the experience of the surgeon performing the procedure. Vasovasostomies are also performed in men who are sterile because of genital tract obstructions.

In a vasovasostomy, the surgeon makes an incision in scrotum at the site of the vasectomy scar . The spermatic cords are located, and the two vas deferens are reconnected with two layers of suture.