Paediatric urology concerns urologic disorders in children. Such disorders include cryptorchidism (undescended testes), congenital abnormalities of the genitourinary tract, enuresis, underdeveloped genitalia (due to delayed growth or delayed puberty, often an endocrinological problem), and vesicoureteral reflux. Paediatric urology is a surgical subspecialty of medicine dealing with the disorders of children's genitourinary systems. Pediatric urologists provide care for both boys and girls ranging from birth to early adult age. The most common problems are those involving disorders of urination, reproductive organs and testes.

Some of the problems they deal with are: Bladder control problems such as bedwetting and daytime urinary incontinence Undescended testes (cryptorchidism) Hypospadias Epispadias Urolithiasis (bladder and kidney stones) Chordee and other minor malformations of the penis Phimosis Urinary obstruction and vesicoureteral reflux Neurogenic bladder (e.g., associated with spina bifida) Antenatal hydronephrosis Tumors and cancers of the kidneys Repair of genitourinary trauma Genitourinary malformations and birth defects Prune belly syndrome Cloacal exstrophy, bladder exstrophy, and epispadias Ambiguous genitalia and intersex conditions